A estratégia da sauna finlandesa

As fronteiras das Humanidades Digitais: Ensaio de geografia política de uma comunidade científica.

Versão portuguesa do texto La stratégie du Sauna finlandais
Por Marin Dacos, 1 jun. 2013


Dália Guerreiro
Maria Isabel Roque
Universidade Europeia / UÉ-CIDEHUS


Fala-se de Humanidades Digitais! Mas será que as Humanidades Digitais existem como comunidade unida e coerente? O governo desta comunidade é equilibrado e democrático? Até agora, ainda não tinha havido um estudo acerca desta comunidade, sustentado por um inquérito que abrangesse todos os seus membros, numa perspetiva multilinguística e geográfica. O inquérito “Who are you, Digital Humanists?” – lançado no THATCamp Luxemburgo (2012), e divulgado durante o DH2012, Hambourg – permitiu juntar uma amostra incompleta, ainda que significativa, de 850 indivíduos que aceitaram responder ao nosso questionário. Constatou-se, por um lado, uma grande diversidade linguística e geográfica, tendo havido um grupo de não participantes, por não terem visto o inquérito ou por não lhe terem prestado atenção, e, por outro lado, a exceção do inglês como primeira língua, a par da sua predominância como segunda língua. Revelou-se que as Humanidades Digitais estavam muito marcadas pela História e pelos estudos clássicos, mas muito pouco, realmente muito pouco, ligadas às disciplinas que se interessam pelo mundo contemporâneo, sejam as ciências da Web, ou as relacionadas com a mineração de dados e de textos. Descobriu-se também um evento de grande importância, o encontro Digital Humanities 2012, cujo tema era a diversidade cultural e que foi presidido pela Europa, América do Norte ou, mais precisamente, pelo Reino Unido e as sua ex-colónias (Irlanda, Canadá, Estados Unidos de América, Austrália). Diríamos que a anglofonia voltou a marcar pontos. A fim de medir os progressos da diversidade no âmago do poder da nossa comunidade, este artigo propõe a criação de um indicador, o Digital Humanities Decision Power (DHDP), para calcular a distância entre os grupos de Humanidades Digitais e medir as suas faculdades na peritagem e nos procedimentos de seleção científica. Com base neste indicador, seria necessário um debate coletivo para tornar a nossa comunidade mais aberta à diversidade linguística e geográfica. A isso, nós chamamos a estratégia da Sauna finlandesa.



Digital Humanities involving people and museums

Kenderdine, S. (2016). Embodiment, entanglement and immersion in digital cultural heritage. In S. Schreibman, Siemens, & Unsworth (Eds.), A new companion to digital humanities (pp. 22-41). Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Malden, MA, USA : John Wiley & Sons.


In the first Companion to Digital Humanities (2004), there was a chapter entitled “Art history”, by Michael Greenhalgh, who approached the use of Digital Humanities in the museum. Also Carole L. Palmer spoke about museums in the chapter “Thematic research collections”, as well as other scattered references.

In the A new companion to digital humanities (2016), the reference to museums comes from Sarah Kenderdine in the chapter “Embodiment, entanglement and immersion in digital cultural heritage” (pp. 22-41). Sarah Kenderdine is professor at the National Institute for Experimental Arts, University of New South Wales, where she leads the Laboratory for Innovation in Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museum, director of research at the Applied Laboratory for Interactive Visualization and Embodiment at City University of Hong Kong, and also leads the Special Projects at Museum Victoria, Australia (see O despertar da era da experiência, segundo Sarah Kenderdine: museus e humanidades digitais). Kenderdine (2016) examines immersive and interactive visualization environments (IIVE), which “support embodiment for cultural heritage interpretation in museums” (p. 23). Considering that “the humanities increasingly embrace digital tools, visualization, and interaction as the primary modes of communication” (Kenderdine, 2016, p. 23), also the emerging technologies has implications in museums, which become increasingly performative.

“Emerging technologies that encourage kinaesthetic embodiment are simultaneously accompanied by shifts in critical theory that emphasize performance, distributed experience, and the materiality of the digital.  These further break down dualisms of action | reaction and virtual | real.” (Kenderdine, 2016, p. 23)

This implies a new relationship between the museum and its publics. To the audiences growing heterogeneity and dynamism, museums are impelled to answer with innovative strategies, combining immersive experiences with its traditional role of cultural heritage exhibition and its commitment to knowledge construction.

Kenderdine analyses immersive applications in cultural heritage visualisation, namely, those concerning the reformulation of digital cultural archives (CloudBrowsing (2008-2009), Ecloud WW1 (2012), mARChive (2014)) and, above all, the representation of tangible and intangible heritage, such as panoramic immersion (Be now here (1994), Place-Hampi (2006)) and embodiment visualization and machine-body entanglement (Pure Landand: Inside the Mogao Grottoes at Dunhuang (2012), Pure Land augmented reality edition (2012)).

Evaluating this projects, Kenderdine (2016) confirm that “the museum’s emphasis on the quality of their collections and scholarly frameworks has involved to include visitors framed by these qualities” (p. 36), but advert to the gap of evaluation, presenting I Sho U, a new research tool. “I Sho U encapsulates the fundamental role of visitor evaluation and evolving social research to impact and improve the design, delivery, and dissemination of the museum – actual and virtual” (Kenderdine, 2016, p. 23) which allows to understand the visitors’ perspective and involvement.

As Kenderdine concludes: “Understanding the fundamental nature of embodied experience will put humanities scholars, and museum curators and designers at the forefront of articulating and defining meaning in an increasingly ubiquitous screen culture” (Kenderdine, 2016, p. 23). Museums seem to be a brave new world. To those who think that all of this may confuse the perception of cultural heritage authenticity, it is clear that it is up to the museum to find the balance between the real object in exhibition and its virtual manipulation and augmented reality, and use these to capture attention of the new audiences for to the heritage intrinsic qualities of temporality, veracity and materiality.

Schreibman, S., Siemens, R. G., & Unsworth, J. (Eds.). (2004). A companion to digital humanities. Malden, Mass: Blackwell Pub.
Schreibman, S., Siemens, R. G., & Unsworth, J. (Eds.). (2016). A new companion to digital humanities. Chichester, West Sussex, UK ; Malden, MA, USA : John Wiley & Sons.

Images source:

Museums and digital humanities: from the divide to the bridges

In recent times, many (well, maybe not so many!) projects have been announced, introducing Digital Humanities in museums. Slowly but surely, museums are decreasing the divide that separates them from the digital tools.

Slowly, it began with the collections register databases; slowly, it proceeded with the websites creation; more recently and even more hardly, digital projects have been produced, generally, in articulation with technological companies for which museums used to provide support to their experimental development. Nowadays, digital technology and new communication ways, such as social networks, are allowing museums to establish a permanent contact with their visitors, receiving their feedback in real time.

Internet and smart technology have been made accessible to everyone and become part of their everyday lives. So museums tend to create links, not only with their real public, as to the potential and virtual ones. In the meantime, the proliferation of mobile devices, is been grasped to deliver extra contents about the exhibition, the collection, the objects on display or in the reserves… Slowly, but firmly, digital has been occupying an increasingly central role in museum activities.

Digital divide is broken.

Nevertheless, numerous gaps remain, calling a wider community – curators, academics, cultural mediators – to debate the role of Digital Humanities.

There are projects, situations, case studies, which constitute an empirical assessment of digital technology in museums.  While museums are investing in technologies to make the museum experience more interactive, we may miss out on a great opportunity to analyse and discuss the results of all of these projects. There are many projects, but few scientific research about them. Above all the speculations and provisional or unproved hypotheses, critical process reviews are required to analyse and understand how digital humanities are being applied in museums. Theorizing about this phenomenon seems to be the next step.

Gaps will be filled.

Cultural tourism and digital humanities

Post published in https://amusearte.hypotheses.org/1201

Co-author: Dália Guerreiro

“Digital technologies should provide target information, according to the different audiences segments. To the researcher, the new technologies use is an alternative to the museum’s visit. Although considering that there is not an alternate to the original observation, the additional analysis may be realised through digital reproductions. To the tourist, or a non-specialized visitor, the museum experience may be enhanced by digital strategies mediation, from the visit preparation to the construction of the visit memories and knowledge acquisition. Also, digital humanities have created an opportunity for reusing the information and making it available in an affordable and creative way.”


Humanidades Digitais para os museus

Post publicado em https://amusearte.hypotheses.org/373

Pode ser que um dia, invertendo o modelo e já que os museus não parecem querer aproveitar a oportunidade e tomar a iniciativa, sejam as Humanidades Digitais a forçar os museus à entrada na nova era. Pode ser que, um dia, os museus sejam forçados a aderir às potencialidades da hiperligação entre dados para construir um corpus alargado de informação relativa aos espólios, desde a documentação de arquivo aos estudos científicos. Pode ser que, um dia, os museus sejam impelidos a disponibilizar a representação digital dos objetos em realidade aumentada e a permitir a sua manipulação digital, criando um complemento informativo à observação do original no espaço físico da exposição. Pode ser que, um dia, os museus sejam coagidos a disponibilizar WiFi e APP móveis no percurso museológico, facultando o acesso a fontes de informação adicional para a leitura e a interpretação dos objetos expostos.

Pode ser que, um dia, sejam os utilizadores a exigir ao museu a adesão às Humanidades Digitais.

#DayofDH Museums and digital technology: concurrence or convergence?

Post published on the Day of Digital Humanities 2014

One of the most important challenges faced by museology over the time has been the mediation between the exhibition (the exposed objects) and the large variety of their audiences. That is not easy, the balance between providing information and maintaining a clean space where the object could be highlighted. Visitors may want to “just see” in clear and unspoiled space or want to” know everything” about the object, its history, its original contexts or functions, and its meanings. Digital technology can provide the knowledge in an inconspicuous manner, slightly invasive, but also through an individualized and interactive way.

In: http://amusearte.hypotheses.org/929

Persistência e mudança: a difícil adesão dos museus às Humanidades Digitais

Post publicado no Dia das Humanidades Digitais 2014

“Já passou a primeira fase da desconfiança ou da euforia, perante o impacto das novas tecnologias, aproveitando as funcionalidades sem cair na tentação de considerar que todas as metodologias e procedimentos de há três décadas sejam necessariamente obsoletas. Estamos aqui e agora – e esta é a nossa realidade.” Em: https://amusearte.hypotheses.org/724

Público no Metropolitan Museum of Art Foto: MIR, 2014.
Público no Metropolitan Museum of Art
Foto: MIR, 2014.

Museus e Humanidades Digitais?

Day of DH 2016 Sites.
O Dia das Humanidades Digitais é o pretexto para falar dos desafios que os museus desafiam na contemporaneidade.

Moma 1
Museum of Modern Art (MoMA)
New York, 2014

Repositórios das memórias, dos testemunhos do passado, o museu de hoje encara as ferramentas digitais como uma oportunidade para criar e desenvolver novas formas de mediação cultural, de transmitir conhecimentos, de estabelecer laços com os públicos de sempre, mas também com públicos inesperados, recrutados no espaço virtual.

É a possibilidade de encontrar novas linguagens, interativas, moduláveis, multisensoriais. É a capacidade de construir narrativas abertas e de estabelecer conexões sem limites. É o futuro que se desenha hoje.